Tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha) is a potent pleiotrophic cytokine produced by white blood cells, endothelium, and several other normal and tumour cells in response to a wide variety of stimuli. TNF alpha is involved in the pathophysiological processes of several chronic and acute diseases, including the induction of apoptosis and up regulation of inflammation. Recombinant TNF alpha comprises a 157 amino acid fragment (77-233) corresponding to the mature soluble TNF alpha chain protein. TNF alpha is expressed in E. coli with an amino-terminal hexahistidine tag.
Transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF beta 1) is a member of the larger TGF beta superfamily of cytokines produced by a wide variety of cells that are involved in the regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, cellular homeostasis and a wide variety of other cellular functions. TGF beta 1 has been shown to regulate the actions of many other growth factors involved in a range of human diseases including renal disease, hepatic disease, heart failure and cardiomyopathies.
Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP-1) is an inducible glycoprotein, which is synthesized by many different cell types. TIMP-1 binds in a reversible fashion to matrix metalloproteinases, with regions in the N-terminal domain binding to the MMP substrate-binding site. TIMP-1 stimulates erythropoiesis and inhibits apoptosis in B-cells. Recombinant TIMP-1 comprises a 184 amino acid fragment (24-207) corresponding to the mature TIMP-1 protein and is expressed in E. coli with an amino-terminal hexahistidine tag.
Resistin is a member of a class of cysteine rich proteins and is also known as ‘serine/cysteine rich adipocytesepcific secretory factor’ or ADSF or FIZZ3. Resistin is secreted by adipose tissue and has been implicated in the pathogenesis of obesity-mediated insulin resistance and type II diabetes. Resistin also appears to act as a proinflammatory cytokine. Recombinant resistin comprises a 92 amino acid fragment (17-108) corresponding to the mature resistin protein and is expressed in E. coli with an amino-terminal hexahistidine tag.
RANTES (acronym for Regulated upon Activation, Normal T-cell Expressed, and presumably Secreted) is a member of the beta (CC) chemokine subfamily and is predominantly produced from T cells and platelets. RANTES has been shown to be a chemoattractant factor for monocytes, CD4+/CD45RO+ T lymphocytes and basophils. It has also been shown to induce the proliferation and activation of killer cells and acts as a HIV suppressive factor. Recombinant RANTES comprises a 68 amino acid fragment (24-91) corresponding to the mature RANTES protein and is expressed in E.
Monocyte Chemotactic Protein-1 (MCP-1) is a member of the CC subgroup of the chemokine superfamily. MCP-1 is produced by a variety of cell types including monocytes, lymphocytes, endothelial cells and fibroblasts after stimulation by inflammatory mediators. MCP-1 acts as a potent chemoattractant and is plays an important role in the inflammatory response of blood monocytes, tissue macrophages and natural killer cells. Recombinant MCP-1 comprises a 76 amino acid fragment (24-99) corresponding to the mature MCP-1 protein and is expressed in E.
Interleukin-12 beta (IL-12 beta) is a cytokine that can act as a growth factor for activated T and NK cells. IL-12 beta enhances the lytic activity of NK/lymphokine-activated killer cells, and stimulates the production of IFN-gamma by resting PBMC. IL-12 beta associates with IL23A to form IL-23, a heterodimeric cytokine which functions in innate and adaptive immunity. Defects in IL12 beta are a cause of mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial disease (MSMD), also known as familial disseminated atypical mycobacterial infection.
Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is a potent mitogen for mature parenchymal hepatocyte cells, is a hepatotrophic factor, and acts as a growth factor for a broad spectrum of tissues and cell types. It has no detectable protease activity. Hepatocyte growth factor is a dimer of an alpha chain and a beta chain linked by a disulfide bond. Defects in this protein are the cause of deafness autosomal recessive type 39 (DFNB39), a form of profound prelingual sensorineural hearing loss..
Genetic variation in Interleukin-1 Receptor Antagonist (IL-1RN) is associated with susceptibility to microvascular complications of diabetes type 4 (MVCD4). These are pathological conditions that develop in numerous tissues and organs as a consequence of diabetes mellitus. Diabetic retinopathy remains the major cause of new-onset blindness among diabetic adults. Defects in IL1RN are the cause of interleukin 1 receptor antagonist deficiency (DIRA), also known as deficiency of interleukin 1 receptor antagonist.
Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF-A) is a potent mitogen for mature parenchymal hepatocyte cells, is a hepatotrophic factor, and acts as a growth factor for a broad spectrum of tissues and cell types. It has no detectable protease activity. Hepatocyte growth factor is a dimer of an alpha chain and a beta chain linked by a disulfide bond. Defects in this protein are the cause of deafness autosomal recessive type 39 (DFNB39), a form of profound prelingual sensorineural hearing loss.