Casein kinase 2-interacting protein 1 (CKIP-1) plays a role in the regulation of the actin cytoskeleton through its interactions with actin capping protein (CP). CKIP-1 targets CK2 to the plasma membrane thereby serving as an adapter to facilitate the phosphorylation of CP by protein kinase 2 (CK2). CKIP-1 inhibits tumor cell growth by inhibiting AKT-mediated cell-survival. CKIP-1 is involved in PI3K-regulated muscle differentiation, the regulation of AP-1 activity and the promotion of apoptosis induced by tumor necrosis factor TNF.
CTNNB1 (Catenin beta-1) is involved in the regulation of cell adhesion. The majority of catenin beta-1 is localized to the cell membrane and is part of E-cadherin/catenin adhesion complexes which are proposed to couple cadherins to the actin cytoskeleton. Defects in catenin beta-1 are associated with colorectal cancer.